Russia


Russia, the largest country in the world and more than 10% of the total area between the Baltic Sea and the Ural Mountains to the plains of northern Europe, which covered a relatively short ranges in the south central highlands north of Moscow, Russia, located along the Ukrainian border to. Ural Mountains from north to south is 2,000 km long and is separated from Asia to the European part of Russia. East of the Ural Mountains in the vast plains of Western Siberia, which is part of the Ob River basin and its branches are covered. Central Siberian Plateau - Yeni between thirty and Lena rivers - up to 1700 meters high. East of the mountains of the Lena River in Siberia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula is also Chrsky mountains. Mountainous part of southern Siberia. Yablonvoy Mountains and the basin of the Amur River Astanvvy, which leads to the Pacific coast and in the territories have arisen. Lake Baikal and the Altai Mountains of southern Mongolia is located along the border. Between the Caspian Sea and Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia and Azerbaijan, it is removed. Territory of Kaliningrad between Poland and Lithuania along the Baltic Sea separated from Russia. Major rivers: Yeni C, Ob (or Irtysh), Amur (or argon), Lena Volga, Angara, Doina, Pchvra, comma  highest point: Albrvz (in Georgia), 5642 m.  Climate: Russia has a different climate, but weather is the most diverse country and its temperature rise reaches levels. North polar region, is the frozen plains of the tree and the soil it is almost always frozen. In the south polar region of the country is covered with evergreen trees that have long winters and short summers hard. Mtrf steppes of Russia's regions are very hot and dry summers but cold winters. The Black Sea coast has a Mediterranean climate.


Major cities: St. Petersburg (former Lenin C), Novosibirsk, Ykatryn Borg (former Svrdlvfsk), Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Kazan, Ufa, Rostov, Vvlgvgrad, Krasnvbarsk, Saratov, Voronezh, Vladyvostok,
Area: 17,075,200 square kilometers
Coastline: 37,653 km
Geographical coordinates: 60 degrees north and 100 degrees east

Government
It is expected that the 1993 Constitution be amended. The Proposed Constitution, which is composed of two chambers, the Russian parliament will vote all adults are elected for four year - consisting of representatives of the parties to determine the number of representatives elected according to the population of each district are selected and smaller chamber consisting of representatives of each of the 88 provinces, autonomous republics and regions, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR is already selected - about two-fifths of its current members to vote all adults Constituency selected have represented one-fifth of the regions and republics are directly elected, and the remaining 32 members of the official Communist Party (now disbanded) have chosen. Iran's president - who would appoint the prime minister and the Council - with votes being changed all adults for five years. Main political groupings such as "democratic Russia" (pro Yltysyn), Union City (Extremist) and the Russian People's Party (conservative) is. Under the provisions of the "Convention on the Russian Federation" (1992), republics and autonomous regions are listed at the bottom of the Kurds exert their degrees. (Tatarstan and China have not yet signed the treaty.)  republics and autonomous regions in the following area (sq km) 8,000 obstetric Caucasus North Ossetia Gyn Center Maykop Dyg·h 7600 - Buri (autonomous region) 19,000 42,100 Udmurts awareness Ynskaya Ayzhvsk Avstvrdynsky boron (autonomous region) 22,400 Avstvrdynsky Avnky (autonomous regions) 767 000 9,000 Ingush you Fzran Bashqiristan 143.600 351.500 Ulan Ude Ockhams Buri 68100 Kazan, Tatarstan Taymyr (autonomous region) Tuva Dvdynka 862,100 170,500 10,300 salmon Chechnya Grozny Chuckchi Anadyr Chuvash 737.700 18,300 61,900 Chbvksary Khaks Bakan Khanty - Mansi 523.100 House - Castle Mkhach Mansyk 50,300 Dagestan, Russia (Russian as part of the Russian Federation) Moscow Kabardin 7969100 - Karachay-Balkar Nalchyk 12,500 - 14,100 Charkas Cherkessk Karlya Petrozavodsk Klmvkstan 172 400 301 500 75 900 Elisha Kvryak Palana Komi Kvdymkar Gorno 415.900 - 92.600 Alta Gorno - Ltaysk Marie Yashkarala Mvrdvvyna 23.200 (Mvrdvvya Ex): Saransk 26.200 176.400 Nnats Nari Mar Yakutat - Yakutsk Sakha 3,103,200 Yamalv - Nantes 750.300 Salekhard Yvrysk (Jewish Republic) (autonomous region) 36.000 Byrvbyjan Member of the United Nations Society, CIS, Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

History
Tsar after the February 1917 revolution - the main cause of the catastrophic First World War - has resigned and an interim government was set up. On 7 November 1917 the Bolsheviks (Communists) - led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 to 1924) - The interim government was overthrown in a coup without bloodshed. Russia under the Treaty of Brest - Lytvfsk (March 1918), according to which Russia, Poland, Germany and Austria conceded independence, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Latvy, Lithuania and Ukraine to recognize, withdrew from the war. In other parts of the former empire, including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Central Asia, who soon declared independence. Civil war between the Bolsheviks and the White Russians (led by former Tsar followers) continued until 1922. Much of the former Russian Empire re Communists eventually captured in December 1922 and the USSR were established. Was reorganized under the central control of the economy, but it soon shortages - and, in some areas, starvation - emerged. After Lenin's death (1924), the power struggle between supporters of Joseph Stalin (1879 and 1953) and Leon Trotsky (1879 to 1940) ensued. Opponents of the Communist Party in 1927, Stalin expelled Trotsky was forced into exile in 1929, he (and his killing was in 1940). Stalin ordered the country's rapid industrialization. In 1929 and 1930, kulaks (prosperous peasants who were mostly opposed to the government) destroyed. Severe repression continued until Stalin's death in 1953 - against the risk of "show trials" - and were subjected to instant death, and millions of people lost their lives as a result of political starvation or execution. World War II - during which perhaps 20 million Soviet citizens died - Soviet pact signed with Hitler at the beginning (1939) and Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states conquered and annexed many territories. However, in 1941 the Germans invaded the Soviet Union and the Soviet entry into the war on the Allied side were. After the victory of the Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe and the Control Bar to challenge the West in the Cold War standoff over his position as a global power. However, the country's economy was stagnant, and the extent of poverty over time Empire became worn. Leonid Brezhnev (administration from 1964 to 1982) the political situation during the rule of Nikita Khrushchev (administration from 1956 to 1964) was obtained and comprehensive reforms to reverse prior policies of Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931) in 1985 occurred did not. Grvbachf tackle pressing issues in the implementation of economic reforms, social, economic and industrial situation of economic restructuring (perestroika) and more open political environment (glasnost) was attempted. Economy also tends to reduce military spending by reaching an agreement with the West over arms reduction effect. Opposition was tolerated by the government, free elections will lead to major reforms in the Constitution of the Communist Party gave up its leadership role. In 1989, the Communist Party of uncompromising reformers (mostly non-communist) defeated in the congressional election of new representatives. Theory stop Brezhnev - Soviet right to intervene in the affairs of Warsaw Pact countries (Hungary and Czechoslovakia as it was in the military) - the rapid changes in Eastern Europe and one after the other satellite countries of the region and the start of communist rule the holding of multiparty respectively. Adjacent and growing nationalism in the Soviet Union from 1989 on the welds. Populist movements in the Baltic republics, which were called for re-establishing independence it had enjoyed from 1919 to 1940. Lithuania has clearly attempted to break up. Gorbachev when the Soviet Union in order to reestablish the authority of Baku, capital of Azerbaijan, sent troops, unrest in the Caucasus - in the region of the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan, which was - serious violence between Armenian and Orthodox Christians and Muslims Azeri Shiite ended in 1990. In August 1991 the group of Extremist Communists to overthrow Gorbachev, Boris resistance due to Yltysyn (born 1931), president of Russia's refusal to deal with an army of unarmed civilian protesters, failed. Palm Russian coup against Yeltsin and legal status and powers of Russia and 14 other republics of the Soviet Union improved. Fourteen of the 15 republics declared their independence and analyzing all three Baltic republics were recognized by the international community. Jmhvryhayy that remained in the Union, they began to talk about their relationship. Gorbachev and the Communist Party suspended - with Yltysn - a broad political and economic reforms began. But it was too late to save the Soviet Union and Ukraine's refusal, the second of the Republic, with the participation of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev proposed to open the scoring. At the end of 1991 the initiative was taken by Gorbachev to Yeltsin, who had a key role in society CIS. The grouping of military and economic alliance that includes most of the republics of the former. After Gorbachev's resignation and the dissolution of the Soviet Union (December 1991), Soviet Russia's international obligations, including its seat on the UN Security Council, on its own. The Russian Foreign and Commonwealth forces of society, with disagreements about the future potential territorial claims on other former Soviet republics and the inner face of the severe economic crisis during the transition from a command economy to the free market faces of the former communists Extremist People's Congress deputies and the way these changes have prevented the constitutional reform

Defense
Armed forces: 2.720.000 (some part of the joint armed forces of the Commonwealth are society, including other personnel is 1200000). Military service: Army and Air Force 2 years 2 to 3 years in the Navy and Border.

Education
Literacy rate: close to 100% (estimated 1992). Compulsory schooling ages 7 to 15 years. Number of universities: 42 universities, 32 align with the University's Polytechnic (plus more than 100 other institutions that offer college level courses).

Economy
Russia is one of the largest producers of coal, iron ore, steel, petroleum and cement. However, the recent economic crisis. Economic reform (1985 to 1991), Mikhail Gorbachev principle of decentralization from central planned economy to be entered. 1991 with the creation of a free-market prices to encourage private commercial activity has accelerated reforms. However, lack of motivation in the workforce will affect all economic sectors. Distribution is incomplete, leading to shortages of essential goods. Decreased production of hyperinflation in 1992, reached 2200%. More than one-third of the labor force in the manufacturing industry and include steel, chemicals, textiles and heavy machinery. Is much less developed production of consumer goods. Large-scale farming and collected in the form of state or collective farms organized. Although the private ownership of land and culture has been established. Despite having the largest Russian mechanized agriculture and industry Kvdsazy world, is unable to produce sufficient grain for much Ahtyajsh. This is in part due to perceptions of inadequate storage and transport facilities is undesirable. Imports from Ukraine and Kazakhstan has gained importance. Cultures of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beet and fruit. Natural resources, including the largest coal reserves in the world, almost a third of the world's natural gas reserves, Drkhtzarhay a third of the world's largest reserves of manganese, gold, potash, bauxite, nickel, lead, zinc and copper, as well as multiple locations for power plant has hydroelectric. Machinery, petroleum and petroleum products are major export Russia. Kfast the country in terms of energy. Russia and other former Soviet republics have large trade surpluses.