Germany


In the plains of Germany - an area covered by fertile fields and sand - Elbe rivers and their branches Vzr current. West of the plains of North Rhine lands occurs in the coal-rich Ruhr area in which are located close to a quarter. Plateaux, consisting of a row of rocks along the country's East and West, including the highlands and the Eiffel Hvnzrvk Vstrvald in Hesse and Rhineland Tavnvs and Mountain Hearts and Arts in Nvryngn to run. The Rhineland, and Vstravld Tavnvs in Hesse and Thuringia extends to a Mountains Hearts and Arts. Rhine ravine in the central plateaus between passes. In the southern German Black Forest (Schwarz Wald) fertile valleys of the Rhine valley and rocks Svabya (Shvabn) will detach. Forest Heights is located on the edge of Bohemia in the Czech Republic border, while Alpine in Bayern (Bavaria) comprises the Austrian border.  Major rivers: the Rhine, Elbe, Danube (Dvnadv), Oder, Mvzl, Nkar, Hafl.  highest point: 2,963 meters Tsvg Ashpytz·h.  Climate: The climate is mild, but significant differences between temperate coastal plains in the north and south of Alpine Bavaria with cool summers and cold winters there.


Major cities: Bonn, Essen, Hamburg, München (Munich), Cologne, Frankfurt, Dortmund, Düsseldorf, Stuttgart, Bremen, Laypzyng, Duisburg, Dresden, Hanover, Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Bochum, Wuppertal, Bielefeld, Shmnytz, Mannheim, Magdeburg, Gyrshn scorer, Karlsruhe, Wiesbaden, Rostock, Brunswick, Mönchengladbach, Munster, Augsburg, Kiel, Krefeld, Aachen, Oberhausen, Lübeck, Freiburg, Mvlhaym, Mainz, Leverkusen
Area: 357,021 sq km
Coastline: 2,389 km
Geographical coordinates: 51 degrees North and 9 ° East

Government
From each of the 16 states (Maryland, gathered Lndh) Germany, the proportion of the population, three, four or six members of the state government as a representative of one of the houses of parliament - the Federation Council (Bvndsrat) - which has 79 members, are present. The members are elected for limited time. Other houses of parliament - the Bundestag (Lvndstag) -662 composed of members who represent electoral districts have a population areas proportional to the number of representatives is elected for four years by a vote of all adults. The executive power of the federal government is headed by the Federal Chancellor. Bvndstag chooses the Prime Minister. Federal president during a joint session of Bvndsrat members and equal number of representatives of state, is elected for a five-year period. However, in August 1990, it was announced on Lynn's capital, parliament, government ministers, federal president and prime minister are based in Bonn.  major political parties include: • Social Democratic Party (Socialist), • Christian Democratic Party (Conservative) • Social-Christian Party • Party of Free Democrats (liberal) • Green Party (environmental protection) • Party of Democratic Socialism (Communist Party former East Germany)  Each state has its own parliament and government separate.  called the United States, Germany, the center of area (square kilometers) with Dan - Vvtmbrg 35752 Stuttgart, Bayern (Bavaria), München (Munich) 70546 Brandenburg state capital Potsdam 28016 Name Area (sq km) Berlin 883 Berlin Berman Berman 404 15209 Erfurt Thuringia Rhineland - False Dresden Saxony 17713 2571 19848 Mainz Zabrvkn Saarland Saxony - Anhalt Magdeburg 20297 Schleswig - Holstein Kiel 15720 Mecklenburg - Western Pomerania Schwerin 26694 North Rhine - Dusseldorf 3406 Phalen West Hanover Lower Saxony, Hamburg, Hamburg 47431 755 21114 Wiesbaden Hesse Join the United Nations of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Western European Union, the Group of Seven, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Council of Europe

History
In 1871, German Empire - consisting of four kingdoms, six Mhdvk settlement, five and seven princely grand duchy - the King of Prussia as German Emperor (Kaiser) was formed. From 1871 to 1918, united Germany and expansionist attempts to expand its influence throughout Europe, the United Kingdom competed in the sphere of trade and naval and colonial empire building. Germany under Vylham (reigned from 1888 to 1918), which was a bad-tempered person, he was instability in world politics. In June 1914 the Crown Prince of Austria - was assassinated in Sarajevo Hngry. Austrians - backed by the Germans, who were afraid of the danger of collapse ally - and threatened to put the blame on Serbia attacked. The race also helped Serbs demand in Russia, and the Russians began their massive military mobilization. Germany's fear of being attacked, a strategy known as Shlayfn plan to perform a step, and declared war on Russia and France. The purpose of this project defeating France (United Russia) was completed before the Russian campaign. When the German troops, the introduction of French invasion, went into neutral Belgium, United Kingdom - guaranteeing the independence of Belgium - Germany declared war. The war lasted from 1914 to 1918, and in Germany, Austria and Turkey were against world unity. Battle of the West Front, trench warfare was soon to become the stimulus fails, and only when the balance of power in favor of the Allies Back in 1917 the U.S. entered the war against Germany. East side, caught up in the chaos of the Russian revolution (1917) and the German invasion of the occasion and the results were conclusive. Austrian power in August 1918 and broke up in Turkey and Germany was isolated. With the loss of public confidence in Germany, the country surrendered in November 1918. Defeat in World War I led to the loss of the colonies, overseas territories of the monarchies in Europe and German war indemnities imposed huge sums Allied occupation of the Rhineland in 1930. The Liberal Republic and Aymar (1919 to 1933) failed to create political or economic stability. In the early 1930s, the National Socialist German Workers Party in favor of the (Nazi) increased. The party seeking to establish a strong, centralized government, hawkish foreign policy, maintaining characteristics of Albanian ethnicity and termination agreements after the war, in 1933, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler (1889 to 1945) was prime minister and president in 1934. Third Reich (empire), he annexed Austria in construction (1938) to analyze Czechoslovakia (1939), and others that he attempted to destroy the Jews and the Nazis were the post. Hitler claims in order to promote exchange in Poland, Germany and the Soviet Non-Aggression Pact signed. (24 August 1939), the Baltic republics of the Soviet Union to solidify (Estonia), Lakvy and Lithuania annexed to Poland in September 1939, and agreed to divide Germany into war. Two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany but Nmytvanstnnd do something to help Poland. After the war, Hitler called spurious interrupt turned towards the West. (1940) and Denmark, Nvrvzh, Belgium, Holland, Luxemburg and France invaded. In 1941 Italy was at war with Britain and France against the invasion of Greece, Albania and Balkan fronts opened. Germany invaded the Soviet Union (1941) opened the East Front. Also in 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. naval base in Hawaii Prlharbr Axis (Germany and Italy) attached. At the height of the Axis powers in 1942 Germany - directly or allies hand - nearly all of Europe except Britain Jzabr, neutral Switzerland, Sweden, Spain and Portugal were under control. In late 1942 against the Axis in North Africa had changed. In 1943, Italy surrendered to Soviet forces began to push back the Germans did. In 1944, the Allied landing in Normandy coast began to liberate Western Europe, the Balkans and the advancing Germans expelled Azkhak salt. After heavy Allied bombing of Germany was quick snake. Hitler committed suicide in April 1945 and early May in Berlin fell to the Soviets. In 1945, Germany was a land of Poland. Allies (Britain, France, USA, USSR), the country - and the capital, Berlin - was divided into four occupation. Purpose Allies, German Mthdv disarmed, but the cooperation between them quickly fell apart, and in 1948 and 1949 when the Soviet blockade of West Berlin. In 1948, the western parts of Germany became an economic standpoint. Following the unification of the western part of the Federal Republic of Germany, part of the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic was proclaimed. Economic development in the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of damage there. Repressive communist uprising in 1953, food shortages, and the government had to Dnbab. In 1955, West Germany, as part of his independence of Western Union. The division of Germany was accepted with reluctance. Mvnradadnayr Chancellor (1876 to 1967), the recognition of East Germany as a separate state refused, and relations with the Soviet Union remained unclear. Important issues are not defined block of East included areas occupied Poland in 1945 and came to the difficult situation in West Berlin - part of the Federal Republic - where the soil was isolated communist East Germany. Relations between East Germans to West Germany ran a large number of dark and stopped only when it escapes Walter Avlrsht (East German Communist Party leader from 1950 to 1971) issued orders for the building of the Berlin Wall (1961). Dnayr the disputes with France and Europe participated in the community of West Germany into the West's attempts to gain acceptance. German economic recovery that had begun under the Chancellery successors Dnayr Christian Democrat (Conservative) He - Ludwig Erhard (chancellor from 1963 to 1966) - and Kurt Georg Kissinger (chancellor from 1966 to 1969) was followed. Chancellery of the Social Democrats - Willy Brandt (chancellor from 1969 to 1974) and Helmut Schmidt (chancellor from 1974 to 1982) - deals with the Soviet Union (1970) and Poland (recognition of the Oder - Nays·h as Poland's western border) normalize relations with the German Democratic Republic was signed (1972). Under chancellor Helmut Kohl - Germany Western Europe continue to expand significantly Aqtsadby and join the community Mshataqanh. In the late 1980s, the West German economic and cultural magnet for most of Eastern Europe. However, the root causes of issues remained Republic of Germany, in the late 1980s once again became visible. The old leadership of the Communist leader Erich Hvnh deaf to common sense that the more freedom the Soviet Union, Gorbachev did not show responses were emitted. In 1989, a large number of citizens of East Germany from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, the German Democratic Republic to the destination West left behind. Massive public protests in favor of reform - the leader of the opposition movement known as New House - led to the appointment of a new leader, Egon Krntz, return. Bazgshvdh Berlin Wall in November 1989 and a free shuttle between the two Germanys were possible, but protests continued for fundamental change and another change in leadership was replaced Krntz. Non-Communist president, new prime minister (Hans Mvdrv) and the state with the opposition members were appointed. In March 1990, elections were held in East Germany and the Communist Party was a group of minority descent. When the East German economy collapsed. Two West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany proposed monetary union. As a result, the demand for re-unification of Germany was irreversible. Negotiations called "Two Plus Four" between Germany and the four major Allied war began in February 1990. Rfm early opposition to the Soviet Union, becoming a full member of the North Atlantic Treaty Jamharvpa German units were agreed. Aman on 3 October 1990 and re-unification took place in December 1990 national elections were held. Soviet troops were withdrawn. Single largest economic power in Europe after Germany and Russia has the highest population in the continent.


Education
Literacy rate: nearly 100% of compulsory school age 6 to 18 years. Number of 8 (including university level with universities and institutes).

Economy
German industrial power in the world after the U.S. and Japan third. The country's economic recovery after World War II, "German economic miracle" is read. Important industries include electrical, mechanical, chemical, textile, food and vehicles. Heavy industry and engineering at the Ruhr area, the cities along the Rhine chemicals and motor vehicles Nqlyh in large centers such as the state focuses Stuttgart. Enormous growth since 1980 has occurred in the technology industry. Germany, except coal and brown coal and relatively small Zhyar iron, bauxite, copper ore, nickel, tin, silver, potash and salt are relatively few natural resources and is heavily reliant on imports. A shortage of labor supply and many "guest workers" (quote Arbaytr) - especially from Turkey and former Yugoslavia - were employed. Migration of labor shortages in the West from the East, the former German Democratic Republic, is also facing. Number of workers employed in the manufacturing industry is nearly twice Snayh service. Banking and finance is an important source of foreign exchange earnings, and Frankfurt is one of the main centers of business and finance throughout the world. German reunification in October 1990 was a big problem facing the economy. Former German Democratic Republic with the most successful economy among GCC cross (Kmkvn), but in terms of production, quality, design, and level of profitability compared to West Germany was retarded. A Trust - Troy Hndashtalt - 8000 to oversee the privatization of state enterprises in East Germany was formed. Former Democratic Republic of the important industries include machinery and equipment, transportation, steel, cement, chemicals, and plastic Kvdsazy. But many of these industries were unable to compete with their counterparts in the West. For example, in 1991 the factory produced Traband and Wartburg cars stopped and bought this plant from West Germany, began production in Western models. However, many other businesses have failed to capture East Germany, and in late 1992 the unemployment rate in the former Democratic Republic of close to 20% and was increasing rapidly. Important agricultural products in Germany including hops (for beer), grapes (for wine), sugar beet, Gnam, barley and dairy. Collective farms of the former German Democratic Republic - the country meet its basic needs food, he was privatized in 1990 and 1991. Nearly a third of the country is covered by forest and wood industry provides growing.